Debra  Friedman

Debra Friedman

Associate Professor, Second Language Studies


  • Ph.D., Applied Linguistics and TESL, University of California, Los Angeles, 2006
  • M.A., Teaching English as a Second Language, University of California, Los Angeles, 1998
  • B.A., Slavic Languages and Literatures, University of California, Berkeley

About Debra Friedman

In my work, I take a qualitative approach to the study of language learning and teaching in classroom settings. My primary theoretical framework is language socialization, which views learning as grounded in newcomers’ participation in community practices under the guidance of more experienced members. I have utilized this framework to study the role of language education in Ukrainian language revitalization and nation building and academic literacy socialization in a US MA-TESOL program.

In addition to my empirical research, I also have an interest in qualitative research methods in applied linguistics have co-authored a book (with Charlene Polio of Michigan State University) on research methods in second language writing research. I am currently working on a volume on conducting qualitative and mixed methods research in second language classrooms.

Research interests

  • Second and multilingual language socialization
  • Second language pedagogy
  • Language teacher education
  • Social, political, and ideological aspects of second language education
  • Qualitative research methods


  • Friedman, D. . (in progress) Researching second language classrooms: Qualitative and mixed methods approaches.Under contract with Routledge.
  • Polio, C., & Friedman, D. (2017). Understanding, evaluating, and conducting second language writing research. New York: Routledge.
Journal Articles
  • Friedman, D. (under review). Academic literacy socialization in English as a foreign language (EFL) contexts: A research agenda. Invited paper under review at Language Teaching.
  • Friedman, D. (2021). Defending borders and crossing boundaries: Ideologies of polylanguaging in interviews with Ukrainian youth. International Journal of Multilingualism. .
  • Friedman, D. (2020). Reflecting on the research interview as a socializing interaction. TESOL Quarterly, 54(1), 266-275.
  • Friedman, D. (2019). Citation as a social practice in a TESOL graduate program: A language socialization approach. Journal of Second Language Writing, 44, 23-36.
  • Friedman, D. (2016). Our language: (Re)imagining communities in Ukrainian language classrooms. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 15, pp. 165-179.
  • Friedman, D. (2010). Becoming national: Classroom language socialization and political identities in the age of globalization. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 30, 193-210.
  • Friedman, D. (2010). Speaking correctly: Error correction as a language socialization practice in a Ukrainian classroom. Applied Linguistics, 31, 346-347.
  • Kagan, O. & Friedman, D. (2003). Using the OPI to place heritage speakers of Russian. Foreign Language Annals, 36, 536-545.
Book chapters
  • Friedman, D. (in progress). Qualitative/interpretive approaches to data in L2 research. To appear in A. Mackey & S. Gass (Eds.), Current approaches to second language acquisition research. Wiley Blackwell.
  • Friedman, D. (2020). Negotiating epistemic authority in a US graduate program in TESOL. In M. J. Burdelski & K. M. Howard (Eds.), Language socialization in classrooms: Culture, interaction, and language development.  (pp. 158-177). Cambridge University Press.
  • Friedman, D. (2012). Socialization and language revitalization. In A. Duranti, E. Ochs, & B. Schieffelin (Eds.), Handbook of language socialization (pp. 631-647). Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Friedman, D. (2012). How to collect and analyze qualitative data. In A. Mackey & S. Gass (Eds.). Research methodologies in second language acquisition (pp. 180-200). Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Friedman, D. & Kagan, O. (2008). Academic writing proficiency of Russian heritage speakers: A comparative study. In D. Brinton, O. Kagan, & S. Bauckus (Eds.), Heritage language acquisition: A new field emerging (pp. 181-198). New York: Routledge.